When they’re turned out together, our two Icelandics engage in mock battles. How do I know they are playing and not fighting for real? Their drama is intense. Both rear up and crash into one another. One will come down over the neck of the other seemingly trying to bite the other horse through his thick mane. They’ll spin apart and kick out, then race off at a gallop shouldering one another for an advantage in the turn.
To a causal observer it looks both very dramatic and very real, but these Iceys are good actors. Their battles are all make believe. They leave the “battle field” without a mark on them. The kicks are all pulled punches and the bites nothing but pretend. One moment they are body slamming into one another, the next they are standing side by side in their other favorite activity – social grooming.
After a good play session they come into the barn relaxed, refreshed, and always ready for more. At twenty they play with the same vigor and intensity that they did when they were four.
When you watch your dogs or your cats wrestling together, you have no trouble recognizing this behavior as play. You see the bites that aren’t bites, and the claws that don’t draw blood. You see them taking turns. First, one is on top pinning the other down, and then they’ll flip roles. The stronger animal has learned that if he dominates the play, the other animal will quit. I don’t know which of the Icelandics is the faster horse. They always run together. If Fengur has his nose out in front, it is only because Sindri, our stallion has let him, not because Sindri has fallen behind.
When Peregrine, my senior horse, was a two year old, he was chased by another horse through a fence. I’ve seen what it looks like when these clashes are not play. It is terrifying to watch. There is no mistaking the real thing for play. When I see my cats confronting the neighborhood stray, it does not look in any way like the play they engage in together. But that play between friends has prepared them well for the negotiations they are about to have. All of us – cats, horses, people – know when the play has stopped, and we are now engaged in the real thing – a struggle for survival.
Part 1: Chapter 5: What is Play?
So we can recognize play. But what is it? Stuart Brown wrestled with this question in his book. He opened by saying he resisted giving play a definition for a number of reasons. Play is so varied. As he points out, an activity such as writing this chapter might seem like play to me, but it might be work to somebody else. So we cannot define play simply through the activities we engage in.
For Brown play may be hard to pin down with a rigid definition, but at least in people, it does have very recognizable properties. He would say:
* Play is done for it’s own sake. Play has no direct survival value.
* It is voluntary. You don’t “have to” play.
* Play is inherently reinforcing. Play is fun so you want to play more.
* Play provides freedom from time.
This is the characteristic that most resonates with me. I am constantly losing track of time. I’ll be working with the horses, or working on this book, and suddenly realize that several hours have passed and I’m about to be late for an appointment. I have been so absorbed in what I was doing, so in “the zone” in a PLAY state, that I have completely lost track of time.
At clinics I am constantly surprised that the hands on my watch have moved forward by several hours. “How can it be four o’clock?”, I’ll exclaim. “It was just 12:30 the last time I looked.” It is as though I’m surprised by the notion that time passes. I know the hands on my watch will be progressing around the clock face, but in my PLAY state it truly does seem as though no time has passed.
* Play produces a diminished consciousness of self.
We stop worrying so much about how we look to others. In imaginative play we may even become a different “self”. When you’re trying to learn to ride and you have an instructor barking commands at you treating your lesson more like military boot camp than something you’ve chosen to do for fun, you’ll be a long way from a PLAY state. Barked commands create FEAR and make the learner more self-conscious – not less. To promote the best mental state for learning and retaining information, we want to be PLAY full.
When people are first learning clicker-compatible rope handling skills, I start them out without their horses. At first, people may be thinking how silly they look practicing their technique with a rope tied to a door handle. They’ll be terribly self-conscious. Once I get them in a PLAY state, this kind of thinking disappears. They forget what it might look like to an outsider as they become fully engaged in the process.
* Play has improvisational potential.
When you play, you aren’t locked into a set way of doing things. You can experiment and invent. Many of the details that we now know make a huge difference to the horses were discovered during play sessions without any horses being involved.
People took turns being the handler and the “human horse”. They stepped outside of themselves and left behind their usual, I’m-an-adult-and-I don’t-play-silly-make-believe-games. They let go of their self-conscious rigidity and let the act of playing take over. The result was they saw things in a different way and with fresh insights.
Canine clicker trainer, Kay Laurence, often refers to a quote from Proust:
A journey of discovery comes not from a voyage into new landscapes but seeing familiar landscapes with fresh eyes.
Over and over again, our animals show us the truth of this expression. As each new layer of training is explored, we see our animals and all their brilliance with fresh eyes.
* Play provides a continuation desire. You want to keep doing it. Once the play stops, you want to do it again. As Brown puts it: “Play is its own reward, its own reason for being.”++
++ The Properties of Play are from: “Play: How it Sharpens the Brain, Opens the Imagination, and Invigorates the Soul” Stuart Brown M.D. and Christopher Vaughan, The Penguin Group, NY New York 2009.
Coming next: Part 1: Chapter 6: Being PLAY FULL
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